The view from my window, with the Lakeshore Limited passing by.
Knob-handled patera, or libation dish, Greek, from Apulia, Italy, 330-320 B.C. Attributed to the Baltimore Painter. Hermes leads Demeter and Persephone from the Underworld. Art Institute of Chicago, photo by C.A. Sowa, March, 2015. The crocuses above are from my garden.
Proserpina's return brings resurgence of spring vegetation
The games in honor of Ceres, goddess of the grain, Ovid tells us in his month-by-month calendar Fasti, were held on the 12th of April. This gives Ovid an excuse to tell the story of Ceres, (Greek Demeter) and her daughter Proserpina (Greek Persephone; Ovid uses both forms, depending on the meter), abducted by the Underworld god Dis (Pluto, Greek Hades). The story of the maiden's abduction and return symbolizes and mythically explains the return of vegetation and crops in spring after a long, hard winter.
Ovid's Fasti: The poet puts his whimsical stamp on the story
The primary source for the story of Persephone is the Homeric Hymn II to Demeter (ca. 750 B.C.). Ovid, in Book 4 of the Fasti (8 A.D.), includes all the main points of the story: Proserpina, picking crocuses and other flowers with her companions, is abducted by the Lord of the Underworld (who is her uncle). Ceres wanders far and wide looking for her, as the crops dry up and die. During her travels she disguises herself as an old woman and becomes nursemaid to a child (Demophon in the Hymn, Triptolemus in Ovid), whom she tries to make immortal by putting him in the fire. She is interrupted by the child's mother, Metanira, so that a successful future, but not immortality, awaits him. Proserpina is returned to Ceres, but because she ate one or more pomegranate seeds, she can only leave the Underworld for part of the year, remaining underground for the other part. Nothing is said in Ovid of the founding of Demeter's temple or her Mysteries, a central point of the Hymn.
Ovid being Ovid, he introduces whimsical elements into his narrative: Arethusa, the Sicilian fountain nymph, invited all the matron goddesses to a banquet, preventing Ceres from keeping proper guard over her playful daughter. Ceres almost found Proserpina on the first day by following her footprints, but some wandering hogs obliterated the trail!
Ovid's Metamorphoses: A variation with characters transformed into other things
Ovid also told the story in his Metamorphoses (Book V), but since that voluminous work is all about transformations, the emphasis is on characters who are changed into other things. The story is sung by the Muse Calliope in a singing contest, whose origins are too lengthy to tell here. As she tells it, Venus encourages Cupid to shoot his arrow into the King of the Underworld, causing him to fall in love with Proserpina (another complicated story). The innocent girl is carried off while picking flowers, as usual. But a Sicilian water nymph, Cyane, in a blow for women's rights, stands up to Pluto, telling him he should have wooed Proserpina, not abducted her, and puts out her arms to block him. Pluto strikes her pool with his sceptre and opens the earth to receive him and the abducted girl. Cyane melts away in tears and becomes one with her pool of water.
The pomegranate seeds make their mandatory appearance, but instead of Pluto forcing her to eat them, as in the Hymn, Proserpina, wandering innocently in a garden of fruit trees, plucks the pomegranate and eats some seeds. In another Ovidian innovation, Ascalaphus, son of the nymph Orphne and the infernal river Acheron, sees her eat the seeds and tattles on her, with the implication that if no one had seen her, she could have enjoyed a permanant return to the world above! Proserpina, no longer the innocent girl but the powerful Queen of the Underworld, turns Ascalaphus into an ill-omened owl, whose dire appearance foretells death and doom.
Ascalaphus' punishment as an ill-omened owl
Below, in Latin and English, is the story of Ascalaphus' betrayal of Proserpina.
Sarcophagus, depicting the abduction of Persephone. Roman, ca. 190-200 A.D. Art Institute of Chicago, photo by C.A. Sowa, March, 2015.
Figurine of a haruspex, from the right bank of the Tiber 4th cent. BC. Full cast bronze. Height cm 17.7. Vatican Museums, Gregorian Etruscan Museum online, cat. 12040cat. 12040. A haruspex was an Etruscan seer who divined the future from the entrails of sacrificed animals. A model sheep's liver, with incised guide marks, is illustrated at the end of this article. It was a haruspex named Spurinna who told Caesar to beware danger not later than the Ides of March.
A Caesar for all seasons
Julius Caesar was assassinated on the Ides of March, March 15, 44 B.C. His death, following his own gradual amassing of absolute powers, was followed by the accession to power of his grand-nephew and heir, Octavian (as the emperor Augustus), ending the Roman Republic and signaling the beginning of the Roman Empire. The meaning of Caesar's death has been the subject of many interpretations, which have changed many times in tune with the times in which it has been interpreted. Was Caesar a ruthless dictator with monarchical ambitions, and Brutus a republican hero for killing him, or was Caesar a populist hero, against whom Brutus committed an act of personal betrayal? Or was Caesar a talented military tactician, to be studied for his artfulness in war? Shortly after the assassination, Brutus had silver denarii minted bearing his own portrait, implying perhaps his own desire to be king.
In the English-speaking world, students have traditionally learned of Caesar from two sources, his own writings (chiefly his de Bello Gallico, a model of lucid Latin) and Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. Interpretations of Caesar and Brutus have shifted, while culture and politics changed, as analyzed by Maria Wyke in Caesar in the USA (2012). During the Revolution, for example, Caesar was equated with the hated British King Geroge III, but when Lincoln was assassinated, many felt that "a mad Brutus had felled a mighty leader." Many mood swings later, Caesar was linked with Mussolini and even Hitler.
Plutarch vs. Suetonius
The two main Classical sources for the life of Caesar are Plutarch's Parallel Lives and Suetonius's Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Shakespeare took his play mostly from Plutarch, with changes for dramatic effect. He compresses, for example, two Battles of Philippi into a single battle, and has Caesar assassinated in the Capitol instead of the actual venue, the Curia Pompeii. Plutarch (ca.46-120) and Suetonius (ca.69-after 122) were almost exact contemporaries, both born long after the events they describe. But Plutarch was Greek, from Chaeronea in Boeotia, and was a priest of Apollo at Delphi, and although he became a Roman citizen, remained mostly in Chaeronea and wrote in Greek. Suetonius was from Italy and was a friend of the senator and writer Pliny the Younger. In describing the assassination of Caesar, both mention mostly the same incidents: there were portents foretelling the murder, Caesar's wife Calpurnia suffered nightmares, and both tell how at the funeral an innocent man named Cinna was torn to pieces by the crowd, who thought he was the conspirator Cinna. And both include a seer who warns Caesar against the Ides of March, and when Caesar mocks him by saying that the Ides have come with no ill effect, says, "they have come, but they have not gone." Caesar's Comet, which blazed in the sky for seven days, was discussed in the Quotation for November, 2014.
Suetonius' Etruscan specifics
Portents are something a writer can have fun with, the more spectacular the better, and here the authors diverge, with Plutarch (followed by Shakespeare) being more generically macabre, and Suetonius more locally Italian. Shakespeare has Calpurnia report "most horrid sights seen by the watch":
A lioness hath whelped in the streets;In addition, men on fire walk the streets, and a sacrificial victim was found to lack a heart. Plutarch, too, has nocturnal crashing sounds, lights in the sky, birds of omen, men all on fire and the victim without a heart.
Suetonius, however, is the most interesting, because his portents are strictly local. Roman colonists sent to Capua, an ancient Italian city originally settled by the Etruscans, had discovered what was said to be the tomb of Capys, father of Anchises, whose son Aeneas, along with his mother Venus, were considered to be Caesar's ancestors. A tablet was found within the tomb foretelling the death of a descendant of Capys at the hands of his kinsmen. Then the horses released by Caesar as a dedication to the river Rubicon after his crossing refused to graze and "wept copiously." A little king-bird (avem regaliolum) flying into the Hall of Pompey (where Caesar would be assassinated) bearing a sprig of laurel was torn to pieces by other birds, and Caesar himself dreamt that he flew above the clouds and clasped the hand of Jupiter.
In Suetonius, Caesar is warned about the Ides of March not by Shakespeare's random demented "soothsayer" or Plutarch's generic mantis, but by a haruspex, a respected Etruscan priest who divined the will of the gods by examining the liver of sacrificed animals. The haruspex wore a pointed headdress of hide or felt, tied under the chin to keep it from falling off (a bad omen), as depicted in the figurine pictured above. A model liver, with marked divisions, like the one pictured below, could be used as a guide. Caesar's haruspex bears the Etruscan name "Spurinna."
Below, in Latin and English, is Suetonius' enumeration of the portents surrounding Caesar's assassination.
A model liver as a guide for divination. Bronze diagram of a sheep's liver found at Picenum with Etruscan inscriptions. Bronze Liver of Piacenza, photo uploaded to Wikipedia by LoKiLeCh.
The Chicago River, from the Michigan Avenue Bridge, January, 2008. (Photo by C.A. Sowa.)
CHICAGO COLLOQUIA ON DIGITAL HUMANITIES AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
Since their inception in the fall of 2006, I have been attending the Chicago Colloquia on Digital Humanities and Computer Science (DHCS), held at a rotating group of universities around Chicago. These Colloquia now draw participants from all over the world, who present projects covering many fields, including such interests as visual arts, archaeological reconstruction, musical composition, literary criticism, social trends, popular culture, history, and many fields yet to be discovered. Of the projects I have submitted under the name of Minerva Systems, a couple have been presented as poster exhibits. Others I have informally circulated among the participants. But whether one is presenting a paper or simply taking part in discussions, the Colloquia offer an opportunity to exchange a wealth of ideas. Workshops and smaller discussion groups, too, are well worth while.
For information about the Colloquia, visit the DHCS Web site at "http://chicagocolloquium.org". Information about all previous Colloquia (2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011) can also be accessed from there.
The Reliance Building, at State and Washington Streets in Chicago, January, 2008. (Photo by C.A. Sowa.) The Reliance Building, like the MINERVA System, was built on principles of modularity and extensibility.
Read about it!
My thanks to all those who have reviewed and used my self-study CD course on using computers and quantitative methods in the study of literature, The Loom of Minerva: An Introduction to Computer Projects for the Literary Scholar, and my thanks to those who continue to give me comments.
You can read Chapter 1, "A Guide to the Labyrinth: The Problem and Its Solution" on this Web site. (Note: this chapter now describes a greater variety of ways to structure a project, e.g., top-down, bottom-up, etc. It will continue to be revised.) You can also see images from two demonstrations of the MINERVA System, from 2006 (emphasizing individual applications programs), given at the First Chicago Colloquium on Digital Humanities at the University of Chicago and 2007 (emphasizing new project planning programs) given at the Second Chicago Colloquium on Digital Humanities at the Northwestern University.
The MINERVA System
The MINERVA System for Study of Literary Texts is a set of tools, some automated, some not automated, for planning and carrying out a project in literary study. Methods of Systems Analysis, borrowed from the scientific and commercial world, are adapted to the study of literature. This methodology emphasizes the use of diagramming techniques and modular design, offering a way to construct a project as a set of units or modules that can be worked on separately and moved around without disturbing the whole. A project is defined as an enterprise that has a goal and an organized way of achieving that goal.
The Loom of Minerva combines the methods of Systems Analysis with the insights of traditional belles-lettres literary criticism. All analysis takes as its point of departure the value of the piece of literature itself to the critic and the reader, as well as the historic, social, or aesthetic qualities attached to it. These alone confer significance on any work of scholarship. Examples grow directly from study of various works of literature, from Vergil to Coleridge to Baudelaire to Victor Hugo to Edna St. Vincent Millay and Gertrude Stein, and works of criticism from Sainte-Beuve to Swinburne to Gertrude Stein (criticizing her own work).
Emphasis is placed on analyzing the language of criticism itself, analyzing exactly what we mean by such terms as "beautiful," "ugly," "pompous," "like a spring garden," etc. By defining our terms with an exactness that can be quantified, we learn to give precision to our thoughts, whether using a computer or not.
What is in The Loom of Minerva
The CD contains both a set of narrative chapters and a set of programs, called the MINERVA System for Study of Literary Texts. The narrative chapters explain and amplify the programs, and the programs illustrate the chapters. The programs are provided in both executable form and source code, to satisfy both non-programmer scholars and programmers who want to play with the code.
MINERVA stands for Model INteractive Engine for Recognizing Verbal Artifice.
Advantages of the MINERVA System
The MINERVA programs do not require the use of data that is in a proprietary format. They use plain ASCII text, such as that downloaded from the Internet. The OwlData programs can be used to put downloaded or scanned text in the correct format for the MINERVA programs. The mathematics and statistics used are fairly elementary, such as can be understood as an introduction to basic concepts of what the computer and quantified methods can do. The programs are open-source, as they are intended to be extensible.
For more information:
If you are interested in finding out more about the Loom of Minerva or the MINERVA System, contact me at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Reconstruction of one of Babbage's engines at the Computer History Museum, Mountain View, California. Click on the picture to watch it in action. (Photo by J.F. Sowa).
Charles Babbage's Difference Engine and Analytical Engine
Charles Babbage, prolific Victorian inventor, is most famous for two of his inventions, the Difference Engine (1812) and the Analytical Engine (1833), which are perhaps the truest forerunners of the modern computer. The Difference Engine, a mechanical device of rotating gears, was designed to automatically generate mathemetical tables. It was called the Difference Engine because it was based on the principle of computing the differences between successive values of an expression, then the difference between the differences. Versions of the Difference Engine were eventually built and used, but Babbage himself dropped work on it to pursue his real dream, the Analytical Engine. The Analytical Engine was, or would have been, the first "real" computer, capable of performing any kind of mathematical operation, and able to be "programmed," that is, to perform a sequence of operations without human intervention, and to choose, when necessary, between alternative paths of action. It was to be powered by steam, and programs were to be entered into the machine by means of punched cards, an idea borrowed from the then-new Jacquard power looms. Babbage, sad to say, was never able to complete the Analytical Engine.
Ada, Lady Lovelace, "the world's first programmer"
Babbage's collaborator on his Engines was one of history's most remarkable women, Ada, Lady Lovelace, daughter of the poet Lord Byron. These lines from Childe Harold's Pilgrimage are thought to be addressed to her:
A gifted mathematician in her own right, Ada worked with Babbage until her untimely death in 1852 at the age of 36. In 1842, the Italian engineer Luigi F. Menabrea published a description, in French, of Babbage's Analytical Engine. Lady Lovelace translated Menabrea's article into English, expanding it with commentary so extensive that her "Notes upon the Memoir" are virtually an original work. She provides detailed directions for using the machine to calculate answers to mathematical problems, leading modern writers to call her "the world's first programmer." Her words relate computing to other artistic endeavors:
We may say most aptly that [Babbage's] Analytical Engine weaves algebraical patterns just as the Jacquard-loom weaves flowers and leaves.
A Babbage Engine in London and California
In 1985, the Science Museum in London set out to build a working Difference Engine No. 2, based on Babbage's original designs. It was completed in 2002, and is on public display at the Science Museum. An identical Engine, completed in 2008, is presently on loan to the Computer History Museum, Mountain View, California, where it is on display until May, 2009. Read more about this recreated machine at the Computer History Museum Web site.
Click here or on the picture below to watch the Babbage engine in action, in a video taken by John F. Sowa.
Reconstruction of one of Babbage's engines, detail view. Click on the picture to watch it in action. (Photo by J.F. Sowa).
Read about the 1845 Eureka Machine for Composing Hexameter Latin Verse
Another Victorian machine which could be called an early special-purpose
computer was the Eureka machine designed by John Clark in 1845 for automatically
composing Latin hexameter poetry. It still survives, in a museum in Somerset,
England. Click here to read about it.
Book: Traditional Themes and the Homeric Hymns
The book, out of print for a while, is again available by "on-demand" production. Contact the publisher for information.
New selections are available on this Web site for free reading. You can read Chapters 1 ("Introduction") and 10 ("Conclusion: the Place of the Hymns in the Ancient Greek Oral Tradition"), Appendix I ("Outlines of Themes Identified in the Hymns"). You can also see diagrams of the themes as they appear in the Hymns.
Article: "Thought Clusters in Early Greek Oral Poetry"
An article, by Cora Angier Sowa and John Sowa, describes in detail the quantitative and mathematical methods used on the computer to identify thematic elements in Hesiod and the Homeric Hymns. Material from this study was later integrated into into the more comprehensive Traditional Themes and the Homeric Hymns. Click on "Thought Clusters in Early Greek Oral Poetry". A version of the CLUMP cluster analysis program used to identify thematic repetitions is now also being integrated into the MINERVA suite of programs in the self-study CD The Loom of Minerva.
In orally composed poetry like Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, and Hesiod's Theogony and Works and Days, there was no written text (the alphabet being barely known at the time, around 750 B.C.). The bard, like a jazz musician, recomposed his story each time (to a melody now lost to us), using stock phrases or "formulas" and repeated scenes. Since the story was enjoyed not by reading but by hearing it, there were no punctuation marks or chapter headings to tell listeners where they were in the narrative or its episodes. The skilled singer used, instead, repeated words and phrases to serve as "oral punctuation" to articulate the story and provide emphasis for important themes and concepts.
Reissued here is my article Verbal Patterns in Hesiod's Theogony, which explores the use of verbal repetition in Hesiod's tale of the origins of the gods.
We think of computers as being very modern, although calculating machines and computer-like devices have been around for a long time. In particular, we think of using such a machine to do such non-scientific tasks as composing poetry as a modern concept. But in 1845, John Clark built the Eureka Machine for Composing Hexameter Latin Verse. It still exists in a museum in England. Read about the Eureka Machine and read the original description of it from the Illustrated London News of July, 1845.
There is more about early computers and their mechanical ancestors in the self-study CD The Loom of Minerva: An Introduction to Computer Projects for the Literary Scholar, described above.
"Minerva" has long been a popular name for ships. There are cruise ships named "Minerva," including Greek vessels whose owners chose that name as a synonym for their own city patroness Athena. Warships named "Minerva" have graced the navies of Europe from the time of Nelson and Napoleon to the present, whether British "Minerva" or French "Minerve."
It is an interesting choice, considering that Athena, with her gift of the olive, defeated Poseidon, lord of the sea, with his gift of the horse, in the contest to be patron deity of Athens. (See the depiction of Athena and Poseidon below.)
The name "Minerva" for a British warship belongs in the splendid tradition of naming vessels after names from Classical history and mythology. Along with names like "Invincible," "Audacious," "Irresistible," "Insolent," "Victory," and "Dreadnought," we find "Gorgon," "Phoenix," "Achilles," "Apollo," "Dryad," "Endymion," "Hector," "Helicon," "Medusa," "Meleager," and, famously, "Arethusa." The most famous ship named for the Sicilian nymph Arethusa was known for her victory over the French "Belle Poulle" in 1778. Training ships for over a century inherited the name, one after the other.
A frigate "Minerva" participated in the Battle of Cape St. Vincent against the navy of Napoleon on February 14, 1797. The marine painter Thomas Buttersworth (the elder) painted a portrait of "Minerva" in 1810, and the "Minerva" Pub in Hull, England (built in 1831) uses the frigate's symbol, the owl, on its sign. Of course, some ships have been named "Athena" and "Poseidon," too; there was a movie about such a ship called The Poseidon Adventure.
There is a further connection between ships and this Minerva Systems site. In the self-study CD The Loom of Minerva (described above), an analysis of Coleridge's The Rime of the Ancient Mariner is used as a case study to demonstrate methods of Systems Analysis and computer techniques.
A feminist note on the gender of ships: Because of the living qualities of ships, I like to refer to a ship as "she" rather than "it." While some may compare a vessel to a woman because of the supposedly capricious nature of both (although there seems nothing wrong with an occasional playful moment), I think that this view overlooks other qualities. Ships, like women, are beautiful, swift, intelligent, and powerful. I am glad to acclaim them as my sisters!
Signed vase painting by the Athenian potter/painter Amasis (6th cent.
B.C.), depicting Athena and Poseidon. The two figures are labeled
ATHENAIA and POSEIDON. The inscription down the middle reads
AMASIS MEPOIESEN ("Amasis made me"). Amasis may well have been
African. (Illustration from a lithograph by Kaeppelin et Cie., ca. 1840.
The actual vase is in the Cabinet des Médailles, Bibliothèque
Nationale de France, Paris.)
Essays and reviews on building and architecture
Among the selections on this site is the previously published "Holy Places", a study of myths of landmarks. In addition, there is an epilogue to that essay, on "The World Trade Center as a Mythic Place". This piece continues the author's interest in relating ancient ideas to things that we care about in the modern world.
Cora Angier Sowa has combined humanities and technology for many years. She has a BA in Latin and an MA in Classics from the University of California, Los Angeles, and a PhD in Classical Philology from Harvard University. She spent a year studying archaeology at the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. She taught Greek and Roman literature and history at Mt. Holyoke, Vassar, and Brooklyn Colleges. For a number of years, she was a programmer/analyst at Chemical (now Chase) Bank in New York. She has taught classes in computers and humanities at the College of Staten Island and at St. John's University in Queens, New York. She served twice on the Committee on Computer Activities of the American Philological Association, once as chairperson of the committee. She was the recipient of a Fulbright Scholarship (for study in Greece) and of a grant from the American Council of Learned Societies (for work on computers and ancient Greek literature).
In addition to the book Traditional Themes and the Homeric Hymns (described above), Dr. Sowa has published articles and reviews on Classics and on the mythology of architecture and motion pictures. A harp player, she is also on the board of trustees of the International Percy Grainger Society , an organization dedicated to preserving the home and archives in White Plains, New York of Percy Grainger -- composer, piano virtuoso, collector of folk songs, and inventor of an early mechanical music synthesizer. Dr. Sowa is Webmaster for the Grainger web site.
A lifelong railfan, Dr. Sowa is a member of the New York Chapter of the National Railway Historical Society and is on its Board of Directors. She is National Representative for the New York Chapter and is on the Advisory Council of the national organization. She is also a member of the New York Railroad Enthusiasts.
Dr. Sowa lives in Croton-on-Hudson NY, and in New York City, with her husband, Dr. John F. Sowa, an expert in Artificial Intelligence and computer design, and several cats.
All selections on this site, unless otherwise identified, are copyright by Cora Angier Sowa.
Send e-mail to Cora Angier Sowa.
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