Minerva

These are quotations for the year 2017. For other years, go back to the first quotation page for the Index to Quotations.

SELECTIONS
Minerva Systems home page
NEW!
RAILROAD HISTORY OF CORA ANGIER SOWA
Chapter 1 of The Loom of Minerva: An Introduction to Computer Projects for the Literary Scholar, "A Guide to the Labyrinth"
"The Eureka Machine for Composing Hexameter Latin Verses" (1845)
"Verbal Patterns in Hesiod's Theogony"
Selected Excerpts from Chapters of Traditional Themes and the Homeric Hymns
"Thought Clusters in Early Greek Oral Poetry"
"Holy Places", a study of myths of landmarks
"Epilogue to 'Holy Places': the World Trade Center as a Mythic Place"
Writings on Building and Architecture
"Ancient Myths in Modern Movies"
Archived "Quotations of the Month"
Write e-mail to Cora Angier Sowa
Apollo playing the lyre

Illustration: Apollo, patron god of music, plays the lyre, the instrument with which the bard accompanied himself as he sang of mythical stories or the news of the day.




Archived quotations of the month

Beginning with September, 2004, my home page will feature a different quotation from Classical or other literature each month, appropriate to the season or to current events. Starting in October, 2004, these pages will contain "Quotations of the Month" from previous months. Translations are my own, except where otherwise noted.

Below is the index to the quotations for 2017, followed by the quotations themselves.

Index to quotations for 2017

Below are quotations for the year 2017. For other years, go back to the first quotation page for the Index to Quotations or click on one of the years below:

Quotations of the Month for the year 2017

Click on a link to read each quotation

2017

Quotation for July, 2017

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Plough

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For the Dog Days of Summer, Hesiod's Advice in the Works and Days

Ploughing
Top: Hesiodic plow, drawing from Leonard Whibley, A Companion to Greek Studies, 1916, p. 637. The drawing follows the description in Hesiod's Works and Days, vv. 427-436. Above, "Ploughing," from a vase by Nicosthenes, Whibley, p. 637.


In the dog days of summer, eat lunch behind a rock to avoid the girls

The Dog Days of summer begin when Sirius, the Dog Star rises. The weather is sweltering, but the wine is at its best. According to Hesiod, the Old Curmudgeon (in his Works and Days), it is also the time when women are at their most lustful and men's knees and head become weak. In the first part of our Quotation of the Month, he advises that the man take his lunch behind a shady rock, with some of that good wine, where, presumably, the girls can't find him. Then he should pour a libation to the deities of the spring.

In late summer, winnow and store your grain, and don't forget to feed the guard dog!

In the second set of quoted verses, it is late summer, and it is time to gather the grain, winnow it, and store it in the big storage jars. (We assume that he is talking about those big man-size clay pithoi, used for storing all sorts of things, found at Bronze- and Iron-Age sites.) The farmer should then let his hired man go and (with more misogyny!) hire a servant girl who is childless, because a servant nursing a child is a pain in the neck. (Note that the word for "nursing a child" is hypoportis, "(a cow) with a calf under her!") The guard dog must be fed well, so that he will keep the burglars ("the man who sleeps by day") away. Then give the slaves some rest, and unyoke the oxen, to give them some rest, too.

In the verses that follow the quoted lines, not quoted here, the farmer must go back to work again in September and October, bringing in the grape harvest and plowing the ground ready for the next crop. The construction of the plow (illustrated at the top of this item) was already described in verses 427-436.

Below, in Greek and English, are Hesiod's words of advice on summer activities.

Hesiod Works and Days vv. 582-608

Hesiod Works 582-608

A picnic lunch, then store your grain and unyoke the oxen

When the artichoke blooms and the shrill cicada,
sitting in a tree, pours out its clear song
continually from beneath its wings, in the season of exhausting summer,
then the goats are fattest and the wine is best,
women are most sex-crazed and men are
weakest, because Sirius dries up the head and knees,
and the skin is dry from the heat. But at that time
let there be the shade of a rock and wine from Biblis,
and barley bread made with milk drained from goats
and meat of a heifer fed in the woods that has not yet calved,
and of firstborn kids. Drink the fiery wine, too,
while sitting in the shade, when you have satisfied your heart with food.
Then turning your face toward the strongly blowing Zephyr,
from an ever-flowing spring that runs mud-free,
pour three libations of water, but make a fourth libation of wine.

Urge your slaves to winnow Demeter's holy grain
when strong Orion first appears,
in a well-ventilated space on a smooth threshing floor.
Then measure it and put it away in storage jars. But when
you have put all your livelihood away at the ready in your house,
I bid you send your hired man away from the house and seek out
a servant girl with no children. For a servant nursing a child is difficult to deal with.
And take care of the jagged-toothed dog, don't spare the food,
lest the man who sleeps by day take your belongings.
Bring in fodder and litter, so that there is enough
for the oxen and mules. But then
allow some rest for your slaves' poor knees and unyoke the oxen.


Tempe
The Vale of Tempe, in Thessaly, northern Greece. A lovely landscape that Hesiod, in scrubby Ascra, could only dream about as he drank his noontime wine. From an old postcard, collection of C.A. Sowa.



Quotation for June, 2017

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Epictetus

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For "Juneteenth," Epictetus on the Irrationality of Slavery

Ethiopian and horse
An Ethiopian slave breaks in a horse, Archaeological Museum of Athens. Description: "Funerary stele from Attica, right side of a two-panels relief. Pentelic marble, found near the Larisis railway station, date unknown (maybe 4th century BC or 1st century BC). If belonging to the later date, may have been made in honour of king Mithridates of Pontus." (-Wikipedia). Note the panther skin covering the horse like a blanket. Photographer: Marsyas (2006). Above: Epictetus as imagined in the eighteenth century (-Wikipedia).


Celebration of "Juneteenth"

On June 19, 1865, word reached the slaves of Texas that they were free. The news had traveled slowly. On April 9, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, and on June 2, General Edmund Kirby Smith, commander of the Confederate army west of the Mississippi, surrendered to Union forces, bringing the final end to the American Civil War. The Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863, had not ended slavery. But it did free those slaves in certain designated rebel states who were able to escape by running away or because the area was taken by Union troops. Many slaves, in fact, escaped to Union lines. The Proclamation did not outlaw slavery or grant citizenship to freed slaves. Slavery would not be outlawed until December 18, 1865, when the Thirteenth Amendment went into effect.

On June 19, 1865, federal troops entered Galveston, Texas to take possession of the state and enforce emancipation. Union general Gordon Granger, standing on the balcony of the mansion still known as Ashton Villa, used as Union headquarters, read "General Order No. 3," which begins:

The people of Texas are informed that, in accordance with a proclamation from the Executive of the United States, all slaves are free. This involves an absolute equality of personal rights and rights of property between former masters and slaves, and the connection heretofore existing between them becomes that between employer and hired labor...

African Americans in Texas have henceforth celebrated the date as "Juneteenth," and observances have spread to other states.

Slavery in antiquity

Slavery in antiquity was regarded somewhat differently than in the United States. Many of the enslaved were war captives or victims of piracy, and might be better educated than their owners. They might become tutors to their owners' children. Freedmen might achieve high professional success. The Roman playwright Terence, whose Latin name was Publius Terentius Afer ("the African") and who lived c. 195/185 - c. 159 B.C., was, with Plautus, one of the two greatest Roman comic dramatists. He was born in north Africa, possibly near Carthage, of Berber descent. He was brought as a slave to Rome by a Roman senator, who gave him an education, then freed him.

The Cynic philosopher Diogenes (c. 412 BC - 323 B.C.) spent time as a slave. Diogenes, who was actually a serious philosopher, a rival and competitor to Plato, was famous for his silly stunts, like living in a large storage jar (often mistranslated as a "barrel") or going around with a lantern "looking for an honest man." When Alexander the Great asked what he could do for him, Diogenes replied, "You could stand out of my sunlight" (to which Alexander said, "If I were not Alexander, I would wish to be Diogenes!") The philosopher was captured by pirates and sold into slavery to a Corinthian named Xeniades, saying that he wished to be "sold to a man who needed a master." He became a tutor to Xeniades' sons.

Another version of the Diogenes/Alexander story, widely quoted and requoted, seems to be a relatively modern fabrication, appearing only in the late seventeenth century. In it, Alexander sees Diogenes looking through a pile of bones, and asks him what he is looking for. Diogenes says, "I am looking for your father's bones and those of my slave," implying that in death we are all equal. A paper for the Yale Law school by Thomas Laqueur traces this tale to conflict of Protestants and Catholics over the veneration of saints' relics.

The Stoic philosopher Epictetus on slavery

In general, slavery was accepted by the classical world as a normal part of the landscape, and its morality or rationality was not questioned. The first surviving statement questioning the reasoning behind the institution comes from the Stoic philosopher Epictetus (c. 50 A.D. - 135 A.D.). Born in Phrygia, he spent his youth as a slave to the wealthy freedman Epaphroditus, secretary to the emperor Nero. The name Epiktetos in Greek simply means "acquired." We do not know what other name he had. Epictetus obtained his freedom in 68 A.D., after the death of Nero, and taught philosophy. His most famous pupil was the historian and philospher Arrian, whose transcriptions of Epictetus' discourses are our only source for Epictetus' thought, since he himself left no writings. These transcriptions take the form of eight books of the Discourses, of which four survive, and the Enchiridion, or "Handbook."

Epictetus quesioned slavery not on moral but on rational grounds. He explains that while we cannot always control external circumstances, we can always control our attitude toward them, using reason. In the Discourses Book 1 Chapter 2, he applies this principle to slavery. If, he says, you hold a chamber pot for your master because if you do not, you will be beaten and you will not be fed, this is a rational choice, as far as it goes. But if you decide that this is not an occupation worthy of you, you must take this into consideration, too. But slavery is also irrational for the slave owner, if he sees that it is intolerable to let another man hold the chamber pot for him.

Below, in Greek and English, are Epictetus' words on rational choice regarding the holding of the chamber pot.

Epictetus 1.2.5

Epictetus Book1 Chapter 2 Paragraph5

To the person who knows his self-worth, slavery is irrational for both slave and master

To different persons the rational and the irrational appear differently, just as the good and the bad appear as different things to different persons, or the profitable and the unprofitable. For this reason, in particular, we need education, so as to learn how to adapt our preconception to individual things in a way conformable to nature. For the decision as to what is rational and irrational, we use not only the values of external things, but what is appropriate to each person. For one man, it is rational to hold a chamber pot for another, looking only at this, that if he does not hold it he will receive a beating and will not receive his food, but if he does hold it he will not suffer anything hard or painful. But to another man, not only does the holding of the chamber pot appear intolerable for the man holding it, but it is also intolerable to allow another to hold the pot for him. If, then, you ask me "Should I hold the chamber pot or no," I shall say that it is better to receive food than not, that it is a greater indignity to be beaten than not to be beaten, so that if you measure your well-being by these things, go ahead and hold the chamber pot. "But," you say, "this is not worthy of me." Then it is you who must bring this matter into your inquiry, not I. For it is you who know yourself, how much you are worth to yourself and at what price you will sell yourself. For different persons sell themselves for different prices. .
.
.


Terence
Alleged portrait of the playwright Terence, from Codex Vaticanus Latinus 3868. This is an illuminated manuscript from the 9th century of Terence's comedies, possibly copied from 3rd-century original. (Image from Wikipedia.)



Quotation for May, 2017

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Odysseus ship with sirens

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For Memorial Day and Fleet Week, the Catalog of the Ships (Iliad Book 2)

Greek ships
Main illustration: Upper part (Figs. 17, 18) war ship and merchant ship, about 500 B.C. From a painted vase found at Vulci, in Etruria. Lower part (Fig.19) two war ships, about 500 B.C. From a painted vase by Nicosthenes found at Vulci. Illustrations from Cecil Torr, Ancient Ships, 1895. Small inset picture: the Sirens singing to Odysseus from the rigging of his ship. Illustration from Autenrieth's Homeric Dictionary, 1876. The comment is made: "The cut, from an ancient gem, represents them as bird-footed, an addition of later fable; for Homer, they are beautiful women."

A gathering of ships

Fleet Week is a chance for the Navy, Marines, and Coast Guard to show off their ships and stage spectacular air shows. It is celebrated in summer in ports around the U.S. In New York, it takes place the week of Memorial Day; in Portland, Oregon it is in June, in conjunction with the annual Rose Festival, and in San Francisco it will be in October. Other cities include San Diego, Port Everglades, and Seattle. Summer is also a time when coastal inhabitants' thoughts turn to enjoying the water, whether from a boat or on the beach.

For the Quotation of the Month for May we present the most famous Fleet Week of Greek epic, the Catalog of the Ships from Book 2 of the Iliad (vv. 484-759). The Greek army is drawn up before the walls of Troy. They have been there for nine years, and many of the soldiers are ready to go home. But speeches from Odysseus (inspired by Athena), Nestor, and Agamemnon restore their courage, and they prepare for a fight. There follows the great Catalog, enumerating the leaders of each contingent, with the number of ships provided by each, including numerous stories and digressions about the many heroes. The Catalog of the Ships is followed by the Catalog of the Greek horsemen and the Catalog of the Trojans and their allies.

The Greek ships that went to Troy

The magnitude of the Greek army is matched by the magnitude of the Catalog, which weighs in at 275 verses. To quote Homer, "If I had ten tongues and ten mouths, and an unbroken voice, and the heart within me were bronze," I could not include the entire Catalog here. Homer had the advantage of help from the Muses, whom he invokes as he begins his narration. All the heroes are here, including Agamemnon of Mycenae, Menelaus of Sparta, Nestor of Pylos, Odysseus of Ithaca, Idomeneus of Crete, Ajax of Salamis, along with the Athenians, the Cretans, and those from Arcadia, Argos and Tiryns, and all the rest.

I include here only the invocation to the Muses and the first two contingents, the Boeotians and Minyan Orchomenus, the latter usually regarded as part of Boeotia, but here given its own entry.

In the Iliad, the Theban wars are just a memory

The Boeotian entry is most interesting for what it does not include. Many of the town names are little known, such as Hyria, Schoenus, Peteon, Ocalea, and Medeon — who were they, anyway? A few have their own fame. Plataea became famous later as the site of the Battle of Plataea (479 B.C.) in which the Greeks finally drove the Persians out of mainland Greece in the Second Persian War. Onchestus is known to us from the Homeric Hymn IV to Hermes, in which the Old Man of Onchestus tattles on the infant Hermes, whom he has seen driving the cattle of Apollo, which he has stolen, backwards to disguise their footprints.

But where is the glorious seven-gated city of Thebes? Only "Lower Thebes" (Hypothebai) is named. The city of Cadmus, of Semele and Dionysus, of Oedipus, of Antigone, of the heroes of the Seven Against Thebes — that city is but a memory. These are stories famed in epic and drama second only to the Trojan War itself (although the Argonauts and Jason and Medea are close behind). Bronze Age Thebes was destroyed by the Epigonoi, the "After-born," sons of the heroes of the first Theban War. Thebes would be reborn in historic times as one of the great cities of Classical Greece, but by the time of the Trojan War, the powerful old Theban stories were themselves history.

Below, in Greek and English, are the opening lines of the Catalog of the Ships and two contingents of Agamemnon's army and navy, as described in the Iliad, Book 2, vv.484-516.

Iliad 2.484-516

Iliad 2.484-516

The ships that left for Troy

Tell me now, Muses, who have your dwellings on Olympus,
— for you are goddesses, you are present, and know all things,
but we only hear the report, and know nothing —
who were the leaders of the Danaans and their kings.
Their multitudes I could not tell or name,
if I had ten tongues and ten mouths,
and an unbroken voice, and the heart within me were bronze,
if the Olympian Muses, daughters of aegis-bearing Zeus,
did not remind me how many came beneath Ilion.
Now I will tell of the captains of the ships and all the ships together.

The Boeotians were led by Peneleos and Leïtus,
and Arcesilaus and Prothoënor and Clonius.
They were those who lived in Hyria and rocky Aulis
and Schoenus and Scolus and Eteonus with its many ridges,
Thespeia and Graea and Mycalessus of the broad dancing-places,
and those who dwelt around Harma and Eilisium and Erythrae,
and they that held Eleon and Hyle and Peteon,
Ocalea and Medeon, the well-built city,
Copas and Eutresis and Thisbe, with its many doves,
they who held Coroneia and grassy Haliartus
and Plataea, and who lived in Glisas,
and those who held Lower Thebes, the well-built city,
and holy Onchestus, the shining grove of Poseidon,
and who held Arne, rich in grapes, and Mideia
and sacred Nisa and farthest Anthedon.
Of these there came fifty ships, and in each one
went one hundred and twenty young men of the Boeotians.

Of those who lived in Aspledon and Minyan Orchomenus
the leaders were Ascalaphus and Ialmenus, sons of Ares,
to whom, in the home of Actor, son of Azeus, Astyoche gave birth,
revered maiden, when she went to her upper chamber,
conceiving them of mighty Ares, for he lay with her in secret.
With them were ranged thirty hollow ships.
.
.
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Greek ships
Two war ships in action, about 550 B.C.From a painted vase by Aristonophos found at Caere in Etruria. Illustration from Cecil Torr, Ancient Ships, 1895.



Quotation for April, 2017

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Winter aconite with bees

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For Earth Day/Earth Month, Gaia in Hesiod's Theogony

Gaia Kourotrophos
Gaia Kourotrophos (Earth nourisher of children). Image from Roscher, Ausfürliches Lexikon der Griechischen und Römischen Mythologie, 1884. The aconite, in the inset photo above, which I took in my garden, is the first flower to come out of the earth in spring, even before the crocuses. Sometimes it gets covered by a late snow, but it always bounces back. The bees love it.

How the universe began

It all begins with Chaos, Earth, and Love. Our Quotation of the Month for April is taken from Hesiod's Theogony, his epic on how the universe came to be. The Theogony (ca. 750 B.C.) can be described in shorthand form as the genealogy of the gods, but it is more than that. It is a dizzying carousel of stories of gods, goddesses, nymphs, monsters, storms, winds, and bizarre phenomena, and their descent from and battles with each other.

Hesiod took his tales from many sources — previous epics, ritual cults sacred to local features like mountains and springs, old stories — and strung them together to make a coherent narrative. The Succession Myth, of successive generations of monarchs (in this case gods: Ouranos (Heaven), Cronos, Zeus) deposing each other has parallels in other Near Eastern mythologies — Phoenician, Hurrian, Babylonian, Hittite. Sometimes, it was surmised by M.L. West in his edition of the Theogony, Hesiod (or some predecessor) simply used his own imagination to make up names to fill out his lists of nymphs and multiplicities of Muses, Cyclopes, Hours, sea goddesses, and the like. He weaves in an array of stories, like the story of the first woman, who brought nothing but trouble. He used this story again in his Works and Days, where he gives her the familiar name: Pandora.

Chaos, Earth, and Love

First came Chaos, then Earth, then Tartarus, and Eros. There is much speculation about the word "Chaos." We moderns are tempted to see in this the Big Bang and the swirling dust that coalesced into stars and planets, but we can't be sure how Hesiod conceived it. Was it simply the Yawning Gap, a great chasm, or some murky dark substance? We can't be sure. Next came Gaia, the Earth, supporter of all life and Tartarus, the nether world, hidden in the dark places of Earth. Then Eros, or Love, "most beautiful of the gods, who makes men weak-kneed and makes them lose their minds and judgment."

Earth herself gave birth to Ouranos (Heaven), by whom she bore many gods and a few monsters, including the one-eyed Cyclopes. Ouranos had a bad habit of stuffing all his children back into Earth, who groaned in pain. Finally her son Cronos took a sickle and cut off his father's private parts and threw them into the sea, separating Heaven and Earth. Around the severed genitalia the white foam spread. It was from this sea foam that Aphrodite, goddess of desire and fertility, was born.

The generations continue

Cronos, married to Rhea, was the father of many well-known gods, including Zeus, Hera, Demeter, Hades, and Poseidon. But Cronos, too, had a bad habit, of swallowing all his children, lest one of them depose him. So when Zeus, the youngest, was born, he was hidden in a cave, while Cronos was given a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes, which Cronos swallowed. He threw up the stone, then vomited up all the children he had swallowed, and Zeus indeed became king of the gods.

Zeus' first wife (before Hera) was Mêtis ("Good Counsel"). Metis became pregnant with Athena, but Zeus was told that Metis' next child would be a son who would depose him, so he stuffed pregnant Metis into his belly, thus not only ensuring his kingship but also making sure that the wise goddess would be there to give him advice. Later (in what may have originally been a separate myth), Zeus gave birth to Athena from his head. By this time Zeus was married to Hera, who was angry at him for producing the wise Athena without her. So on her own she gave birth to the craftsman god Hephaestus.

And so on! The stories are too many to summarize here!

Below, in Greek and English, are the opening lines of Hesiod's cosmogony.

Hesiod Theogony 116-138

The beginnings of the Universe

Indeed, first of all Chaos came to be, but then came
broad bosomed Gaia (Earth), a dwelling-place always secure for all
[of the immortals, who inhabit the peak of snowiy Olympus,]
and murky Tartarus in an inmost part of the wide-pathed earth,
and Eros, who, most beautiful among the immortal gods,
makes the limbs weak, and subdues the mind and wise counsel
in the hearts of all gods and all men.
From Chaos Erebus and black Night were born.
But from Night were born Aether and Day,
which Night bore after lying in love with Erebus.
And Gaia first bore starry Ouranos (Heaven), equal to herself,
so that he might cover her on all sides,
and to be a dwelling place always secure for the immortal gods.
And she bore the long Mountains, graceful dwellings
of the goddess Nymphs, who inhabit the hilly valleys.
And she gave birth to the harvestless Sea, without uniting in sweet love.
But then, sleeping with Ouranos she gave birth to deep-eddying Ocean,
Coeus and Crius and Hyperion and Iapetus
and Theia and Rhea and Themis and Mnemosyne (Memory)
and gold-crowned Phoebe and lovely Tethys.
After these was born the youngest, wily Cronus,
most terrible of her children; he hated his lusty father.


Eros
Eros, archaic figure. Image from Roscher, Ausfürliches Lexikon der Griechischen und Römischen Mythologie, 1884.



Quotation for March, 2017

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Hegeso grave stele

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For Women's History Month, a dedication to Artemis as goddess of childbirth, perhaps by Sappho

Diana
Statue of Diana, the Roman Artemis. Located at the Huntington Library, Art Collections and Botanical Gardens, San Marino, California. Photo by C.A. Sowa. Small picture above: grave stele of Hegeso, 5th cent. B.C., detail.

Women poets of ancient Greece

As we conclude Women's History Month, we celebrate women poets of ancient Greece. Best known, of course, is Sappho of Lesbos. Enough of her work survives for us to appreciate her great talent. Her Hymn to Aphrodite survives intact, quoted entire by Dionysius of Halicarnassus. In another poem, her description of "falling apart" at the sight of a woman she loves, talking to a man — "He seems to me equal to the gods who sits across from you listening to your sweet speech..." — anticipates Patsy Cline's "I Fall to Pieces." The opening stanzas survive because Longinus quoted them as an example of the Sublime. We used this poem as the Quotation of the Month for February, 2008.

Sappho's sister poets

Sappho was not, however, alone. The work of her sister poets has almost entirely perished. Some are only names, but a few pieces survive. Corinna, choral poet from Tanagra in Boeotia, is traditionally said to have been a contemporary and sometimes rival of Pindar (c. 522 - c. 443 B.C.), although some scholars consider a later date. She composed the Contest between Helicon and Cithaeron, these being the two great mountains of Boeotia. (Cithaeron won, but Helicon retaliated by causing a disastrous landslide). Another woman poet, Myrtis, was said to be the teacher of both Corinna and Pindar. Hardly anything remains of the work of Praxilla of Sicyon (in the Peloponnese), a 5th century B.C. poetess, but she was sufficiently famous to be parodied by Aristophanes. Her "Hymn to Adonis" was laughed at because she makes Adonis say, when questioned in Hades about what he missed most in life, that the most beautiful things he left behind were the sun, the stars, and the moon — and cucumbers, apples and pears! Zenobius quoted the lines to explain the saying "sillier than Praxilla's Adonis," implying that produce is not on the stately level of the heavenly bodies. It seems, however, quite reasonable that a woman would realize that Adonis would miss the homely pleasures of a good meal. A pun has also been suggested on the word for "cucumbers" (sikuos) and the name of Praxilla's home town of Sikyon.

A dedication of thanks to Artemis for a successful childbirth

Our Quotation of the Month is perhaps by Sappho, or perhaps "in the style of Sappho" (hôs Sapphous, according to its heading). It comes from the Palatine Anthology, a collection of Greek poems and epigrams dating to the 10th century A.D. The selection is taken from an inscription on a statue dedicated to "Artemis Aethopia" by a grateful mother, following a successful childbirth. The words are those of the newborn girl, or perhaps of the stone itself, "wordless as I am," speaking through the inscription "laid out at my feet."

Artemis Aethopia, goddess of childbirth

Artemis is known as the virgin goddess of the hunt and of the wild mountains. The name is known from Mycenaean sources, but is of uncertain origin, perhaps pre-Greek. She is associated with cults of wild animals, especially the bear. The deer was also sacred to her. She became associated with various other goddesses and other functions. In mythology, she was known as the twin sister of Apollo, daughter of Zeus and Leto. The Romans identified her with Diana. She became identified with Selene, the moon, and Eileithyia, goddess of childbirth. She acquired the epithet Aithopia, from aitho "to burn," "to shine brightly," perhaps from her identification with the moon. (The word does not mean "Ethiopian," although that name comes from the same word, meaning "having dark (i.e. "sunburnt") faces.") It is as a goddess of childbirth that this statue and its inscription are dedicated to her.

The text we use is that of the Loeb edition of 1934 (ed. J.M. Edmonds) which has the child herself speaking, giving the first word of the inscription as pais "child." The manuscript itself has paides "children," meaning that the words are addressed to an audience of children, and that the stone itself is speaking. This reading is followed by other critics.

Below, in Greek and English, is one reading of the inscription.

Sappho VIII.143

"A thank-offering to Artemis Aithopia"

Although I am a child who cannot yet talk, still I say plainly, if anyone asks,
setting down an unwearied voice at my feet:
Aristo dedicated me to Artemis Aithopia, child of Leto,
she herself being the daughter of Saunaïdas son of Hermocleitus.
She is your attendant, O sovereign of women. Be gracious to her,
and willingly bring glory to our family.


Sappho on cliff
Sappho about to jump off a cliff, as drawn by the anonymous former owner of my copy of the Greek Anthology.



Quotation for February, 2017

o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o

Warrior with linen vest

o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o

For Black History Month, Memnon, the Ethiopian hero of the Trojan War (Quintus of Smyrna, Posthomerica Book II)

Memnon
Memnon's departure for Troy, black-figure vase, ca. 550-525 B.C., Musées Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire, Brussels, Belgium. The Ethiopian hero prepares to aid the Trojans against the Greeks. (Image from Wikipedia.) The thumbnail drawing above shows a warrior wearing a linen cuirass, illustrating the word linothorex ("linen vest") in Autenrieth's Homeric Dictionary, 1876.

The Black Hero of the Trojan War

For February, in honor of Black History Month, we bring you the great Black hero of the Trojan War, Memnon, King of the Ethiopians. His mother was Eos, Goddess of the Dawn. The Ethiopians occupy a favored place in Homeric epic, where they are a semi-mythical people in whose company the gods enjoy lavish banquets. In Iliad 1.423-426, Zeus cannot help Thetis, mother of Achilles, because he is off visiting the Ethiopians. In Iliad 23.205-207, it is the goddess Iris who must hurry off to an Ethiopian sacrifice and banquet. In Odyssey 1.22-25, Poseidon receives sacrifices from the Ethiopians.

Memnon does not appear in the Iliad, which does not describe the last desperate period of the war, but ends with the funeral of Hector, slain by the raging Achilles in revenge for his killing of Patroclus. It is only after this that Memnon arrives with his army to support the Trojans. Memnon was, however, featured in other poems of the Epic Cycle, which were prequels and sequels that filled in stories of what happened before and after the war as told in the Iliad and Odyssey. All of these poems are lost, but summaries and excerpts survive in later authors. One poem was, in fact, called the Aithiopis, or the Ethiopian Poem, which narrates events that immediately follow the Iliad. It begins with the arrival of the Amazon Penthesilea, who comes to support the Trojans, but is killed by Achilles. Then Memnon arrives with his army, but he, too, is killed by Achilles. Achilles pursues the Trojans to the gates of Troy, where he is killed by Paris, who is also eventually killed.

The Egyptian singing statue

In Egypt, Memnon was identified with Amenhotep III (reigned ca. 1411-1375 B.C.). Two colossal statues of the pharaoh still stand near Thebes (as illustrated below). One of these gave a ringing tone when it was struck by the rising sun. While the reason may have been an accident of humidity, the sound was thought to be Memnon's greeting to his mother, Eos, or perhaps her greeting to her son.

Quintus Smyrnaeus' continuation of Homer

In the 4th century A.D., a poet known as Quintus of Smyrna undertook the writing of an epic poem called the Posthomerica, or "After Homer." In a fairly creditable imitation of the Homeric style, it provides another source for the contents of the lost Epic cycle, being based on plot elements of the sequels to the Iliad. Book I recounts the story of the Amazon Penthesilea, Book II tells the story of Memnon. Tall and black, he, like Achilles, wears armor made by the god Hephaestus.

Our Quotation of the Month describes Memnon's arrival in Troy, where the people, and especially old King Priam, are almost pathetically glad to see him, and think he will be their savior. Priam entertains him lavishly, and compares him to the gods. In the narrration that follows our excerpt, Memnon cautions Priam not to celebrate too much, and prefers to go to bed early, rather than stay up all night eating and drinking. His reservations turn out to be all too valid, as he will end up being killed. At the request of Eos, her son's body is wafted away by spirits, and his army is turned into a flock of birds, which fly away.

Below, in Greek and English, is the description of Priam welcoming Memnon.

Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica II.100-163

Quintus Smyrnaeus II.100-135

"A hero to help the Trojans"

Not long after, there came to them warlike Memnon,
King Memnon with his blue-black Ethiopians,
who came leading an immense army. Around them the Trojans,
rejoicing all over the city, gazed at him, just as sailors,
weakened after a destructive storm, behold through the upper air
the radiance of the revolving constellation of the Great Bear.
So the Trojan people rejoiced as they thronged about, but above all
Priam, son of Laomedon. For in his heart he hoped very much to
destroy the Greek ships with fire, helped by the Ethiopian men,
since they had a huge king, and they themselves
were many, all of them eager for war.
Therefore, with great passion, he paid honor to the strong son of early-born Dawn,
with fine gifts and sumptuous festivities.

And they conversed with one another, over banqeting and eating,
the one telling of the Danaan chiefs and the woes he had suffered,
the other telling of his father and his mother Dawn's
eternally immortal life, of the streams of the boundless goddess Tethys,
of the sacred swells of deep-flowing Ocean,
of the bounds of inexhaustible earth, of the place of the
rising Sun, and of his entire journey from the Ocean
to the city of Priam and the headlands of Mount Ida.
He told how he cleaved asunder with his strong hands
the divine army of the Solymoi, difficult to subdue,
who barred his way, a deed that brought them unmanageable calamity and death
So he told all those things, and how he had seen a myriad
races of men; and Priam's heart rejoiced within him as he listened,
and hanging on his words addressed him in an old man's words:

"O Memnon, the gods have allowed me to look upon
your army and upon you in our halls.
Would that they might make it so that I could see
all my foes destroyed upon your spears.
You appear in every way like the invincible immortals,
wondrously, like no one of the earthly heroes.
Therefore, go hurl moaning slaughter against them.
But now come delight your heart at my banquet,
for today. But later go to battle, as befits you."


Memnon statues
Colossal statues of Amenhotep III in Egypt, identified as the famous "singing statues" of Memnon, King of Ethiopia, son of the Dawn goddess Eos. Changes in early morning humidity caused cracks in one of the sandstone statues to emit a singing sound at dawn. But you can no longer hear mother and son singing to each other. Later Roman repairs caused the singing to cease. (Illustration in W.H. Roscher, Ausführliches Lexikon der Griechischen und Römischen Mythologie, 1894-1897.)



Quotation for January, 2017

o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o

Rooster stamp

o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-o

For the Chinese Year of the Rooster, Socrates' Rooster Offering to Asclepius (Plato, Phaedo)

Dionysos and satyrs
Asclepius, god of healing, accompanied by a snake, his usual animal symbol. Paris, Louvre. Illustration from Seyffert, Dictionary of Classical Antiquities 1899.

The Year of the Rooster

This is the Year of the Rooster! And not just any rooster. In the Chinese Lunar calendar, there are five kinds of rooster: Wood, Fire, Earth, Gold, and Water. The year 2017, whose New Year is celebrated this January, is a Year of the Fire Rooster. Roosters are talkative and sociable, but they can be vain and boastful. The Fire Rooster, however, is trustworthy, with a strong sense of timekeeping and responsibility. The U.S. Postal Service has issued a Lunar New Year's stamp with a picture of a rooster, as seen above.

"A cock for Asclepius"

The most famous rooster in antiquity is the cock which Socrates, in his last words, told Crito he owed to the god Asclepius. The story is told by Plato at the conclusion of the Phaedo. That dialog purports to recount the last day in the life of the great Athenian philosopher, as narrated by Socrates' disciple Phaedo to his friend Echecrates. In the political upheavals following the Peloponnesian War, Socrates (469(?)-399 B.C.), a philosophical gadfly, was sentenced to die by drinking poison hemlock for "corrupting the Athenian youth" and for "impiety."

In the Phaedo, Socrates' friends gather in his jail cell for one last conversation. The ensuing dialog concerns the nature of the soul, and whether it survives the body. It covers questions of reincarnation and transmigration of formerly human souls into animals, and what happens to good and evil souls. (Souls contaminated by living in the bodies of the gluttonous and violent are reincarnated in the bodies of asses and other such beasts (Phaedo 81e), the unjust pass into the bodies of wolves and hawks (82a), those who have practiced moderation pass into ants and bees (82b)).

At last an attendant brings the poison cup, and Socrates asks permission to pour a customary libation, but the attendant says the poison is carefully measured out, and none can be spared. Socrates' friends start to cry, and Socrates reminds them to act in a dignified manner, and explains (misogynistically) that that is the reason he sent his wife and other women away, because of their emotional outbursts. Socrates drinks the poison, and as his limbs progressively go cold, he reminds Crito that "We owe a cock to Asclepius, pay the debt and do not neglect it" (118a). Crito asks for further information, but Socrates dies, leaving the enigma of what he meant.

What did Socrates mean?

People from Plato's time onward have scratched their heads over Socrates' intent. Offerings were customarily made to Asclepius, god of healing, after being cured of some illness. The animal most closely associated with Asclepius was the snake, but animals, including roosters, were customarily sacrificed to him. Some writers (including Nietzsche) have thought Socrates meant that life is a disease of which he was cured. Others think he meant that his disciples were cured by his teachings of their misguided thoughts. It is also possible that there is a mundane explanation, that he really did owe an offering to Asclepius for some previous cure. Colin Wells in "The Mystery of Socrates' Last Words" in Arion 16.2 (Fall, 2008) offers another very sensible interpretation. Socrates had wanted to pour a libation (perhaps ironically) from his cup of poison, as if it were wine on some special occasion. Prevented from doing so, he still felt that some appropriate offering should be made to the gods. Hemlock was, in fact, sometimes used as a medicine in small doses, and Plato refers to the poison as a pharmakon ("drug" or medicine), so what god is more appropriate than Asclepius?

We also note that a rooster was a traditional gift exchanged by gay men; see the vase painting below.

Below, in Greek and English, are the final lines of the Phaedo.

Plato, Phaedo 117e-118a

Plato Phaedo 117e-118a

"Crito, we owe a cock to Asclepius"

Then the man who gave the poison laid his hands on him, and, and after a little time examined his feet and legs, and pressing hard on his foot asked him if he could feel it.

He said no. Then after that his legs. And going upwards thus he showed how he was becoming cold and stiff. And again he felt him and said that when the poison reaches the heart, then he will be gone.

The area around his groin was already becoming cold, and uncovering himself — for he had covered himself — he said — and these were his last words — "O Crito, he said, we owe a cock to Asclepius; pay the debt and do not neglect it."

"It shall be," said Crito. "but see if you say something else."

To this question there was no answer, but after a little while he moved and the man uncovered him, and his eyes were fixed. When Crito saw this, he closed his mouth and eyes.

That, Echecrates, was how the end of our companion happened, a man, as we may say, of all men of his time whom we have known, the best and above all the wisest and most just.



Heracles with Cerberus and Erinyes
Ganymede, boy favorite of Zeus, playing with a hoop and holding a rooster. Berlin painter, Louvre. The rooster was frequently exchanged as a gift by gay men. The other side of the vase depicts Zeus in pursuit of Ganymede. (Image from Wikipedia, photo by Bibi Saint-Pol.)





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